Sunday, May 31, 2020
The Second Sex and the Construction of Gender Becoming Woman by SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢s Standards - Literature Essay Samples
The question of what it means to be a woman has been floating through society for ages with any sort of permanent or universally accepted answer remaining elusive. It is a constantly changing definition in which traits appropriate to the time are assigned to the female form as a means of capturing the meaning of being a real woman. Labels such as being obedient, submissive, weak, and well-behaved have been assigned alongside abilities such as being a talented cook, an excellent child rearer, as well as an efficient housekeeper. Stereotypes of inabilities based on gender have arisen as well, such as that women do not have the mental capacity of men and that they cannot work important or difficult jobs. Simone de Beauvoir, however, rejects these labels completely in her philosophical text The Second Sex and identifies the idea of the proper woman as a socially constructed concept. She questions what a woman is and what it means to identify with the word, if anything at all. While the d istinction between men and women exists today, this difference was attached no meaning to begin with and is one that has been built throughout history. Woman has reached her status in society by means of man attaching meaning to her being, and the idea of the real woman has become a daily role that is played and an ever-changing mask that is worn. For these reasons, the social concept of gender is one influenced by external factors that have resulted in the development of an accepted and executed idea of the female form and sense of self. To begin, Beauvoir identifies that the concept of gender is one that is constructed by society and rides completely on the existence of women being different and therefore lesser than men. Beauvoir addresses this in the statement, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËA manÃ¢â¬â¢s body has meaning by itself, disregarding the body of the woman, whereas the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s body seems devoid of meaning without reference to the male. Man thinks himself without woman. Woman does not think herself without man.Ã¢â¬â¢ And she is nothing other than what man decides; she is thus called Ã¢â¬Ëthe sex,Ã¢â¬â¢ meaning that the male sees her essentially as a sexed being; for him she is sexÃ¢â¬ (Beauvoir, 6). Gender as an idea falls upon the subordinate group in the sense that without women there would be nothing to question or compare men to, but the existence of men is not questioned because they hold the dominant position in society. Male domination has come to mean that women are identified as separate, differ ent, and nothing without their male counterparts. Without said counterparts, however, femininity cannot be identified and has no existence. Thus, the sense of self that has been forced upon women relies on the external classification of gender as specifically referring to the female body and form. Similarly, the separation of woman from man by her socially fabricated gender results in her labeling and treatment as an Other as man in return adopts the position of the superior figure, or One. Beauvoir first approaches this topic with the testimony that, Ã¢â¬Å"No group ever defines itself as One without immediately setting up the Other opposite itselfÃ¢â¬ (Beauvoir, 6). This is the case because in order for one identity to be clearly dominant, the Other must first be isolated and then must recognize and submit to their position as the Other. Beauvoir argues that existence precedes essence in the sense that although female and male bodies are different, this difference held no meaning at the start. The development of the Other vs. the One, however, has resulted in the creation of a society in which supremacy is a craved and natural feeling, as Beauvoir states, Ã¢â¬Å"One of the benefits that oppression secures for the oppressor is that the humblest among them feels superior [Ã ¢â¬ ¦] The most mediocre of males believes himself a demigod next to womenÃ¢â¬ (Beauvoir, 13). This desperate need to identify a ruling class has played a major role in the formation of the sense of self that women possess and society possesses surrounding women today. In addition to this, Beauvoir addresses that there is nothing strange about the human desire to define and separate based on difference, despite that these distinctions may only exist within the heads of those who have noted them. She shows that to recognize these differences is simply a part of the human condition in the statement: Ã¢â¬Å"The category of Other is as original as consciousness itself. The duality between Self and Other can be found in the most primitive societies, in the most ancient mythologies; this division did not always fall into the category of the division of sexes, it was not based of any empirical given [Ã¢â¬ ¦] Alterity is the fundamental category of human thoughtÃ¢â¬ (Beauvoir, 6). Through this it is implied that identifying diversity among beings and then attaching meaning to these differences is an inherently human action, as these types of differences are not ones that could ever possibly be derived in nature. Essence has still, however, been underst ood and implemented by mankind throughout history and without it gender differences would have remained meaningless. Consequently, every concept of self that surrounds the female form is one that is constructed upon the external factor of mankindÃ¢â¬â¢s need to attach significance and implication to every existence and to identify a dominant and ruling species. Beauvoir also argues throughout The Second Sex that a woman is in a constant state of Ã¢â¬Å"becomingÃ¢â¬ and that only by succumbing to a state of Ã¢â¬Å"beingÃ¢â¬ shall she be trapped in her status of alterity. She expresses, Ã¢â¬Å"When an individual or a group of individuals is kept in a situation of inferiority, the fact is that he or they are inferior. But the scope of the verb to be must be understood; bad faith means giving it a substantive value [Ã¢â¬ ¦] To be is to have become, to have been made as one manifests oneself. Yes, women in general are today inferior to men; that is, their situation provides them with fewer possibilities: the question is whether this state of affairs must be perpetuatedÃ¢â¬ (Beauvoir, 12). In this she addresses that today women are provided with fewer opportunities than men, but only for the reason that the social order has made them this way. Sex exists and must be recognized as an essential part of human biological function, but it sh ould not be allowed to define the way things must within society. Sex is an accidental trait, such as class, race, or sexuality. The concept of gender, however, is not accidental and has been established only on the basis that to some extent the state of becoming has yielded to a state of being. In this cessation of Ã¢â¬Å"becomingÃ¢â¬ societyÃ¢â¬â¢s ideal woman, the feminine form has reached a condition of existence that fits societyÃ¢â¬â¢s predetermined idea of female identity. In short, she who was once Ã¢â¬Å"becomingÃ¢â¬ has reached a state of Ã¢â¬Å"isÃ¢â¬ and this state has been adopted and maintained by the external in a way that is known as the standard behavior, appearance, and intelligence of women. In response to this Beauvoir states, Ã¢â¬Å"Clearly, no woman can claim without bad faith to be situated beyond her sexÃ¢â¬ (Beauvoir, 4). This idea of bad faith refers to one who is unable to acknowledge their given situation and is therefore unable to move past their current self. This is important as Beauvoir stresses an idea of transcending the physical body as fundamental to overcoming the current restraints put on the feminine form by society. She addresses that biology of the body has been stressed as a point for determining difference as a means of defense against females competing with males when she states, Ã¢â¬Å"Women were becoming dangerous competitors [Ã¢â¬ ¦] To prove womenÃ¢â¬â¢s inferiority, antifeminists began to draw not, as before, on religion, philosophy, and theology but also on science: biology, experimental psychology, and so forth. At most they were willing to grant Ã¢â¬Ëseparate but equal statusÃ¢â¬â¢ to the other sexÃ¢â¬ (Beauvoir, 12). Beauvoi r argues, however, that biology does not equal destiny and should not be allowed to be used as a means for defining a humanÃ¢â¬â¢s existence. Furthermore, she stresses that one cannot be separate and equal in society and that this has been an excuse used for many different cases of minority subjugation as she states, Ã¢â¬Å"This convergence is in no way pure chance: whether it is race, caste, class, or sex reduced to an inferior condition, the justification process is the same. Ã¢â¬ËThe eternal feminineÃ¢â¬â¢ corresponds to Ã¢â¬Ëthe black soulÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëthe Jewish characterÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Beauvoir, 12). She asserts that this mindset is nothing other than a tool that has been used throughout history in order for the One to maintain control over the Others and to force them into specific roles, thus creating an artificial sense of self that is reflected both by the Others onto themselves and by society onto the Other. The sense of self that the feminine form holds today is one heavily constructed on the external pressures of society that result from the aspect of human nature that gives meaning to otherwise meaningless characteristics such as sex and gender. Additionally, while sex is a reality that is formed around the biology of the human body, gender is an idea that has been created solely as a method of undermining and locking the Other, who in this case is woman, into a role in which she is inferior to the One, who is a man. This processing of othering is exercised as a method of maintaining power and control as well as insuring that the One is never under threat of becoming the subordinate party. In addition to this, the submission to a state of being from the state of becoming has resulted in a development of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s picturesque idea of woman. For these reasons, the accepted idea of the female form is one that has been built on outside influence and exterior concepts of gender. Beauvoir, Simone de. The Second Sex. Trans. Constance Borde and Sheila Chevallier. New York: Vintage, 2011. Print.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
John Steinbeck planned out every word he put into his novel Of Mice and Men. Steinbeck did exactly this with the development of the character CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. She had started the novel as a Ã¢â¬Å"tartÃ¢â¬ or a nuisance of a character, but later she turned into an admriable character, one that you really feel for. In Of Mice and Men, CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is shown as a very unpleasant character. For example, while Lennie, Candy and Crookes were in CrooksÃ¢â¬â¢ room discussing their ranch, she walks in and says Ã¢â¬Å"Listen, Nigger...Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"...You keep your place then, Nigger. I could get you strung up on a tree so easy it ainÃ¢â¬â¢t even funny.Ã¢â¬ (Pg 88 and 89). This shows she is taking advantage of the fact sheÃ¢â¬â¢s the bossÃ¢â¬â¢s sonÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, and uses her position of powerÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This shows she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t always just want to cause trouble and be a nuisance. She only wants to make friends and not feel lonely all of the time. In addition, she also says Ã¢â¬Å"SoonÃ¢â¬â¢s he got back to Hollywood he was gonna write to me about it...Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"... I never got that letter.Ã¢â¬ (pg 96). She is saying here that she thought she could one day be famous, and she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like being with Curley at the ranch. She never wanted to be at the ranch, but after the letter never showed up, she went and married Curley. CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is compassionate and admirable, but very lonely. Loneliness is unavoidable for most characters on the ranch in Of Mice and Men. CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is one of the characters in this novel who fell victim to loneliness. It is shown when she explains why Curley does not allow her to talk to the other men because of his insecurities: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËI get lonely,Ã¢â¬â¢ she said. Ã¢â¬ËYou can talk to people, but I canÃ¢â¬â¢t talk to nobody but Curley. Else he gets mad. HowÃ¢â¬â¢d you like not to talk to anybody?Ã¢â¬ (pg 95). CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s insecurities disable his wife from being able to talk to people. CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife gets lonely, and it provokes her to act in a way of meanness when she does. Her loneliness is also shown as she walks in to CrooksÃ¢â¬â¢ bunk, Ã¢â¬Å"Well I ainÃ¢â¬â¢t giving you no trouble. Think I donÃ¢â¬â¢t like to talk to somebody everÃ¢â¬â¢ once in a while? Think I like to stick in that house all time?Ã¢â¬ (pg 85). This directly shows that she is unable to have a social lifeShow MoreRelatedOf Mice and Men: Is Curleys Wife a Victim or Villian?2527 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesJohn Steinbeck presents CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife at the start of the story as an irrelevant character because she has no relation with George and Lennie. At the start, Curley is one of the most important characters (besides George and Lennie) because he has the power to crush George and LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s dream of having a farm of your own. But as the story goes on, to end, we see the importance of her character and that everything that has happened on the ranch is caused by her presence; even though she is not in theRead More To What Extent Curleys Wife a Victim in Of Mice and Men Essay890 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMice Men, the character CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Wife is depicted as flirtatious, promiscuous, and insensitive. However, her husband Curley sees her as onl y a possession. Most of the workers at the ranch see her as a tart, whereas Slim, the peaceful and god-like figure out of all the men, see her as lonely. This answer will tell us to which extent, is CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife a victim, whether towards her flirtatious behaviour, or to everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s representation of her. The character of CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Wife is very hard to unravelRead MoreHow Is Curleys Wife Presented in of Mice and Men, Victim or Villain?2181 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesHow Is CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Wife Presented - Victim or Villain? CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is the only women at the ranch in Of Mice and Men. She is generally portrayed as a young, lonely, bored and childish girl. Ã¢â¬Å"Baloney!Ã¢â¬ is her Ã¢â¬Ëword.Ã¢â¬â¢ This single word shows that she thinks she is a movie star. No one really talks like this. All the way through the book, it is evident this is how she sees her life; unreal, like a movie and dramatic. CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is talked about before she is seen in the book. The first actual mentionRead MoreHow Far Do You Agree That CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Wife Is a Victim and Deserves Our Sympathy?2816 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesJohn Steinbeck in 1936. It is set in the society of the 1920s. The author sets up our perception of the character Curleys wife in a way that allows us to develop our understanding of her, and enables us to later decide how far we agree that she is an innocent and vulnerable victim, or a manipulator who deserves her fate. We are first introduced to the character Curleys wife in chapter two by Candy. We immediately see her being blamed for causing her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s arrogance Ã¢â¬Å"Curley is cockiernRead MoreJohn Steinbeck s Of Mice And Men1296 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescomplex characters Eva Smith and CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife had represented one of the many themes in both texts, victimisation. When you hear the word victim what come to mind? Perhaps someone who has come to feel helpless and passive in the face of misfortune or ill-treatment? Well the Oxford dictionaryÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of victim is Ã¢â¬Ëa person harmed, injured, or killed as a result of a crime, accident, or other event or actionÃ¢â¬â¢ either way civilisation makes us think that a victim is someone who is innocent and isRead MoreJohn Steinbeck s Of Mice And Men1163 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages(Steinbeck 87) In the novella Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck, CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is discriminated against because she is a woman living in the 1 930s when few females could live economically independent of men. By choosing not to name her, Steinbeck reinforces her insignificance on the ranch and her dependence on Curley. While a misfortunate victim of isolation, CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife exerts unexpected power attempting to mask her pain. While Crooks, a victim of racial prejudice, expresses his isolation openly, he alsoRead MoreAnalysis Of John Steinbeck s Of Mice And Men 849 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages(Steinbeck 87) In the novella Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck, CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is discriminated against because she is a woman living in the 1930s when few females could live economically independent of men. By choosing not to name her, Steinbeck reinforces her insignificance on the ranch and her dependence on Curley. While a misfortunate victim of isolation, CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife exerts unexpected power attempting to mask her pain. While Crooks, a victim of racial prejudice, expresses his isolation openly, heRead MoreOf Mice and Men: Explore Your Response to Curleys Wife1423 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMy initial response to the character of Curleys wife was that of intense dislike- I found Steinbeck to subtly prejudice us, as readers, against her, before she even made a physical appearance in the text. Upon reflection, I perceive Curleys wife in some ways to be the most important figure in the novel- she is a key symbol of temptation, and most of the storys main underlying themes: dreams, isolation and loneliness, for example, can be related to her in some way. To an extent, she can be blamedRead MoreOf Mice and Men by John Steinbeck1081 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCrooks and CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife are defenseless victims of social prejudice which leads to their sadness and depression. Crooks, being a black man is discriminated and segregated towards by all the other ranchers Ã¢â¬Å"They play cards in there but I canÃ¢â¬â ¢t play because IÃ¢â¬â¢m black- CrooksÃ¢â¬ whereas CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife being a woman is expected to stay at home and take care of the house Ã¢â¬Å"Why dont she get the hell back in the house where she belongs- CarlsonÃ¢â¬ . Furthermore Steinbeck as well as the ranchers view CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wifeRead MoreOf Mice and Men Essay on Lennie672 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesachieves these two feats by creating a character who earns the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s sympathy because of his utter helplessness in the face of the events that unfold. Lennie is totally defenceless, he cannot avoid the dangers presented by Curley, CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, or the world at large, Ã¢â¬ËCurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s fist was swinging when Lennie reached for it.Ã¢â¬â¢ Representing his tragic flaw this extract clearly shows that Lennie has no control over his strength which is making the ending more foreseeable. But he is a character whom Steinbeck
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
In Jhumpa LahiriÃ¢â¬â¢s Unaccustomed Earth, Ã¢â¬Å"Only GoodnessÃ¢â¬ is a short story that delves further in the relationships of an American Bengali family dealing with an addiction of a family member, and is expressed through the protagonist Sudha, and her brother Rahul. The conflict of this story is RahulÃ¢â¬â¢s drinking becoming a problem that not only affected him but his family as a whole, and that becomes the struggle between his family and himself. The plot in Ã¢â¬Å"Only GoodnessÃ¢â¬ revolves around an American Bengali family that struggles with their son Rahul who is an alcoholic. Rahul and his sister Sudha were their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ biggest successes, but he ends up becoming more distant from his family throughout. Later on, the story focuses on his furtherÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This notable example of alcoholism within families isnÃ¢â¬â¢t only evident with Cafferty as you have many other families such as young children who may have alcoholic parent(s) , and the negative effects that has on the children can affect them in their later years. Those children that grow up with the influence of alcohol within their families are prone to end up following in the footsteps of their parents, as their alcoholic lifestyles essentially creates the staple of normality that the young children are accustomed to. Another cause of alcoholism is distrust. When growing up people can become either scarred or traumatized in some way or another, and as a result that created a voice in the back of their head that said itÃ¢â¬â¢s better to not trust someone in fear of being hurt in the same way again. The effect of that ideology is turning to another medium as comfort; hence alcoholism becoming the long term result. Alternatively as stated before that being in families where alcoholism is ever so apparent the effect that can be drawn up from alcoholism is instead of directly following your parents footsteps you learn to not place trust in people. They learn from their alcoholic parent(s) that itÃ¢â¬â¢s better for their own well being to not place their trust into anyone. That becomes a never ever ending circle with alcoholism, as those
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Of Revenge Essay REVENGE is a kind of wild justice; which the more mans nature runs to, the more ought law to weed it out. For as for the first wrong, it doth but offend the law; but the revenge of that wrong, putteth the law out of office. Certainly, in taking revenge, a man is but even with his enemy; but in passing it over, he is superior; for it is a princes part to pardon. And Salomon, I am sure, saith, It is the glory of a man to pass by an offence. That which is past is gone, and irrevocable; and wise men have enough to do, with things present and to come; therefore they do but trifle with themselves, that labor in past matters. There is no man doth a wrong, for the wrongs sake; but thereby to purchase himself profit, or pleasure, or honor, or the like. Therefore why should I be angry with a man, for loving himself better than me? And if any man should do wrong, merely out of ill-nature, why, yet it is but like the thorn or briar, which prick and scratch, because they can do no other. The most tolerable sort of revenge, is for those wrongs which there is no law to remedy; but then let a man take heed, the revenge be such as there is no law to punish; else a mans enemy is still before hand, and it is two for one. Some, when they take revenge, are desirous, the party should know, whence it cometh. This is the more generous. For the delight seemeth to be, not so much in doing the hurt, as in making the party repent. But base and crafty cowards, are like the arrow that flieth in the dark. Cosmus, duke of Florence, had a desperate saying against perfidious or neglecting friends, as if those wrongs were unpardonable; You shall read saith he that we are commanded to forgive our enemies; but you never read, that we are commanded to forgive our friends. But yet the spirit of Job was in a better tune: Shall we saith he take good at Gods hands, and not be content to take evil also? And so of friends in a proportion. This is certain, that a man that studieth revenge, keeps his own wounds green, which otherwise would heal, and do well. Public revenges are for the most part fortunate; as that for the death of CÃÆ'ÃâÃâÃ ¦sar; for the death of Pertinax; for the death of Henry the Third of France; and many more. But in private revenges, it is not so. Nay rather, vindictive persons live the life of witches; who, as they are mischievous, so end they infortunate.
Friday, April 17, 2020
Munchausen syndrome by placeholder is one of the most hard and rare signifier of kid maltreatment. It carries significant morbidity and mortality and comprises both physical maltreatment and medical disregard and is besides a signifier of psychological ill-treatment. The diagnosing relies on appropriate intuition and careful probe. Early acknowledgment and appropriate intercession prevent farther maltreatment and condemnable actions. The fiction of a paediatric unwellness is a signifier of kid maltreatment and non simply a mental wellness upset. and there is a possibility of an highly hapless forecast if the kid is left in the place. Certain factors are identified that may assist the physician recognize this insidious type of kid maltreatment that occurs in a medical scene. and doctors have to describe intuitions to their stateÃ¢â¬â¢s kid protective service bureau. This paper highlights how Munchausen syndrome by proxy instances is handled. Munchausen syndrome by placeholder: sensing. probe and legal proceedings Munchausen syndrome-by-Proxy ( MSBP ) . We will write a custom essay sample on Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page besides known as Medical Child Abuse ( MCA ) . is a mental upset in which a parent ( normally the female parent ) abuses her kid by making or distorting medical symptoms. or by seeking unneeded medical attention for the kid. in order to derive attending and understanding. In 1998 the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children ( APSAC ) reported that the configuration of behaviours by and large referred to as Munchausen by Proxy really includes a paediatric diagnosing of kid maltreatment and a psychiatric diagnosing of the culprit. Therefore Munchausen by Proxy consists of two positions Ã¢â¬â the pediatric and the psychological ; the victim and the culprit. From the position of the kid victim. the diagnosing is Pediatric Condition Falsification ( PCF ) and is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a signifier of child ill-treatment in which an grownup falsifies physical and/or psychological marks and/or symptoms in a victim. doing the victim to be regarded as ailment or impaired by others. Ã¢â¬ From the position of the culprit. the diagnosing is Factitious Disorder by Proxy ( FDP ) and is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a psychiatric upset which is applied to a individual who deliberately falsifies marks or symptoms in a victim. The parent may overstate. misrepresent. or manufacture symptoms or trial consequences. which can take to the kid undergoing legion hospitalizations. invasive trials. gratuitous therapies. and even surgeries. Ã¢â¬Å"On April 7th the Tucson Police Department arrested and charged a 21 twelvemonth old female parent of two with kid maltreatment. Blanca Montana had taken the kids to the University Medical Center describing flu-like symptoms. Her boy was discharged. but her infant daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s status continued to deteriorate. The babe was finally diagnosed with nine separate rare infections over the class of her infirmary stay. Staff noticed that the childÃ¢â¬â¢s status worsened every clip she was entirely with her female parent. They began to surmise Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy and reported their intuitions to the constabulary. The constabulary investigated the maltreatment and determined that Montano deliberately poisoned her kid and had caused her unwellnesss. After the female parent was barred from sing the baby. the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s status improved significantly. It was determined that Montana had poisoned her two kids in order to acquire attentionÃ¢â¬ . ( ABC intelligence ) In classical instances of MSBP. the behaviour of the opprobrious parent towards the kid is strongly and straight influenced by the responses of the physician to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"undiagnosableÃ¢â¬ disease. The term MSBP can besides use to state of affairss where the parent in some manner appears to compromise the medical attention of the kid. Examples include parental over handling or undertreating of such medical status such as asthma. epilepsy and cystic fibrosis. MSBP is different from other signifiers of kid maltreatment. Unlike the typical physical kid maltreater who seeks to let go of his or her ain defeats by floging out at a kid. the motives of the MSBP maltreater are more complex. The perpetratorÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour is more premeditated than unprompted. and it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t consequence from the behaviour of the kid ( function as penalty for bad behaviour ) . These kids are frequently hospitalized with groups of symptoms that donÃ¢â¬â¢t rather fit any known disease. Frequently. the kids are made to endure through unneeded trials. surgeries. or other uncomfortable processs. The opprobrious parent is normally really helpful in the infirmary scene and is frequently appreciated by the nursing staff for the attention she gives her kid. She is frequently seen as devoted and self-sacrificing. which can do medical professionals unlikely to surmise the diagnosing of Munchausen syndrome by placeholder. By responding to the concerns and demands of culprits. medical professionals are manipulated into a partnership of child ill-treatment. The syndrome occurs because of psychological jobs in the grownup. and is by and large an attention-seeking behaviour. The syndrome can be dangerous for the kid involved. How do we manage child maltreatment instances of this nature? Diagnosis of fancied upsets is particularly hard because clinical findings are undetectable when they are overdone or imagined and are inconsistent when fabricated. When a clinician suspects that a disease has been falsified. this hypothesis must be pursued smartly and the diagnosing must be confirmed if the kid is to be spared farther injury. MSBP should be considered whenever a kid is presented with an unusual unwellness and has a negative workup or an unnatural response to standard therapy. Following verification of a diagnosing of MSBP. it is the responsibility of kid protection bureaus and mental wellness squads to be after for the hereafter attention and safety of the kid who has been harmed. Identifying and reacting to this unusual and complex signifier of kid maltreatment requires a carefully coordinated multidisciplinary intercession of several subjects and bureaus is indispensable for placing and reacting to instances of suspected MSBP. Each subject should near MSBP instanc es from its ain country of expertness with the common end of guaranting the safety of the victims. Baby doctors or household doctors initiate the appraisal. If at any point in the medical appraisal procedure. the handling doctor or any other member of the medical squad have Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable cause to surmise child maltreatment or neglectÃ¢â¬ he or she should do a study instantly to ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Protective Services ( CPS ) as required by jurisprudence ( N. Y. SOS. LAW Ã § 413 ) . The CPS worker. in bend. should get down the probe including contacting and join forcesing with the medical squad as they complete the medical appraisal. CPS will organize the medical appraisal. ease obtaining medical and other records sing the kid and the household. consult with legal advocate. jurisprudence enforcement. and initiate legal proceedings if required to protect the kid or to foster the probe. In instances of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy. it is advised that parents be excluded from treatments of the probe in order to non put the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives at farther hazard of enduring im portant injury. which in the most serious instances may take to their decease. Most culprits who induce symptoms will go on to make so during hospitalization because keeping the kid in the ill function is the lone manner to maintain carry throughing the abuserÃ¢â¬â¢s demand. For illustration. in 2008 Amber Brewington was charged with attempted homicide for poisoning her infant boy by repeatedly shooting salt H2O into his eating tubing ( at least 5-6 times ) while he was a patient in Tennessee and Pennsylvania infirmary ( usatoday. com ) . If a kid is admitted to hospital. sensing of induced unwellness will be facilitated by maintaining a record of all parent visits and activities. looking for associations. Recurrent symptoms may justify close observation with one-to-one nursing. In order to halt the rhythm of maltreatment. research workers must obtain sufficient admissible grounds to convict the maltreater. A peculiarly effectual manner to obtain cogent evidence in MSBP instances is to utilize hidden cameras to videotape grounds ( tribunal ordered ) . Prosecu tion Munchausen syndrome by placeholder can be difficult to prosecute because many of the instances lack grounds and informants. Care must be taken non to let a Ã¢â¬Å"labelÃ¢â¬ or diagnosing to act upon the manner in which the instance is conducted. If the instance is truly one which used to be called Ã¢â¬Å"crueltyÃ¢â¬ . it should be dealt with consequently. Sally Clark was convicted in November 1999. The strong beliefs were upheld at entreaty in October 2000 but overturned in a 2nd entreaty in January 2003. after it emerged that the prosecutorÃ¢â¬â¢s diagnostician had failed to unwrap microbiological studies that suggested one of her boies had died of natural causes. She was released from prison holding served more than three old ages of her sentence ( BBC intelligence ) . The sally Clark narrative shows why strong grounds is required to prosecute MSBP instances. The party who makes an allegation must turn out that the kid is enduring or likely to endure important injury which is attributable to the attention being given to him. Mere intuition is non plenty to warrant doing a instance. important injury has to be proven. A guardian ad litem is appointed by the tribunal to stand for and safeguard the involvements of kids in public jurisprudence instances. The defender should hold experience in stand foring kids and be familiar with the kineticss of Munchausen by Proxy. Existing jurisprudence gives the defender considerable power to obtain all necessary studies and to confer with with assorted parties and other experts. If successful in converting the tribunal. by likely cause. that the kid is abused. the defender may inquire the tribunal to protect the kid pending test by puting the kid in an out of place arrangement. A period of separation. although by and large necessary to protect the kid from farther physical and mental injury. could besides function as a Ã¢â¬Å"diagnostic separationÃ¢â¬ to further corroborate the MSBP diagnosing. Making so non merely ensures the childÃ¢â¬â¢s immediate safety but leads to dramatic reversal physical. or psychological. Example ; In a ill-famed instance in Florida. an 8-year-old kid who had been featured in local intelligence for her bravery in the face of awful unwellness was diagnosed with MSB P in 1995. Harmonizing to the female parent. the miss had digestive jobs. ictuss. and an immune lack. Her primary diagnosing had been pseudo-obstructive intestine disease. The kid had had 40 surgeries and more than 200 hospitalizations. She was having nutrition unnaturally by agencies of a gastrostomy tubing and a cardinal venous catheter. An probe supported the determination of MSBP. The kid was removed to further attention. where she regained normal intestine map and normal nutritionary consumption. and returned to school. ( sunsentinel. com ) The safe scene should be a arrangement in which the parent does non hold the ability to hold unsupervised contact with the kid and does non hold the capacity to impact on the day-to-day attention and medical intervention of the kid. In some fortunes. the social worker and the intervention squad will urge seeking expiration of parental rights and acceptance or some other lasting alternate place for the kid at the hearing. The parental discourtesies may be so serious that Criminal prosecution may besides be appropriate. for illustration ; In New York 1972-1985. Marybeth Tinning had killed at least eight of her kids while enduring from Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy. She was sent enced to 20 old ages to life for Ã¢â¬Å"depraved indifference to human life. ( nytimes. com ) The testimony at test should concentrate on injuries suffered by the kid due to the parentÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. Is this kid being abused or non? The tribunal procedure will prove the grounds and logical thinking of the professionals. If successful. before a justice or a jury. in turn outing by preponderance of the grounds that the kid is abused or neglected. the instance returns to the dispositional stage. A court-ordered temperament depends on a comprehensive. nonsubjective forensic psychological appraisal of the offending parent. the other parent and the kid. The childÃ¢â¬â¢s medical and psychological demands should besides be assessed as a foundation for the courtÃ¢â¬â¢s dispositional order. If the forecast for rehabilitation is hapless. possibly expiration of parental rights is appropriate? Possibly referral for condemnable prosecution is appropriate? The dispositional program is really of import. The defender should guarantee that the service program and court-ordered temperament responds to the kineticss present in the household and if applicable. rehabilitation of the household and to let for safe reunion of the kid and the household. On the other manus. the guardian needs to carefully see adept sentiment and prosecute expiration of parental rights or another lasting program alternatively of reunion where necessary. The appraisal and diagnosing of Munchausen by Proxy kid is a complex and emotionally charged undertaking. This potentially fatal signifier of kid maltreatment requires the most current informations and expertness to protect the childÃ¢â¬â¢s physical and psychological safety. Health attention suppliers. kid protection bureaus. and the legal profession must appreciate the particular issues involved in this signifier of kid maltreatment. MSBP instances CHARLOTTE. N. C. Ã¢â¬â A justice sentenced Meredith Stilwell. who pleaded guilty to seeking to surround her immature girl in January 2009. to 52 to 72 months in prison Monday. Meredith Stilwell pleaded guilty Friday to felony kid maltreatment. bring downing serious hurt after concealed cameras at the Levine ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Hospital recorded her seeking to surround her babe. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. wsoctv. com/news/news/judge-sentences-young-mother-to-years-in-prison/nG75g/ When five of Waneta HoytÃ¢â¬â¢s six kids died between 1965 and 1971. physicians suspected sudden baby decease syndrome ( SIDS ) . The instance was even featured in outstanding medical diaries. But when New York State Prosecutor William Fitzpatrick read about the instance. he grew leery. His probe led to HoytÃ¢â¬â¢s apprehension in 1994. When she was interrogated. Hoyt broke down and admitted that she had killed her kids in an effort to hush them. She was sent to prison for life. Hoyt lived in Oswego. New York at the clip of the slayings http: //www. people. com/people/archive/article/0. . 20101784. 00. html Genene Anne Jones is a former paediatric nurse who killed someplace between 11 and 46 babies and kids in her attention. She used injections of Lanoxin. Lipo-Hepin and subsequently succinylcholine to bring on medical crises in her patients. with the purpose of resuscitating them subsequently in order to have congratulations and attending. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. crimezzz. net/serialkillers/J/JONES_genene. php Beginnings Ã¢â¬ ¢Monsters in the Cupboard: Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy. Laura Criddle. RN.
Saturday, March 14, 2020
Project management 5 Essay Project management 5 Essay NAME: Samuel Adebayo COURSE: MIS 4433 INSTRUCTOR: Dr. Mike Estep DATE: 3/14/2015 The sinking of the Titanic is now known to be a folk story and a romantic movie and so many people are unaware of what exactly happened that caused the ship to sink that night on April of 1912. So many people claimed that the builders of the Titanic claimed that the ship was Ã¢â¬ËunsinkableÃ¢â¬â¢ but the actual statement made by the builders was that, the ship was Ã¢â¬Ëpractically unsinkableÃ¢â¬â¢ which is pretty close. The Titanic was the largest ship ever built in the world as at the time she was built. She was built to compete with the Lusitania and Mauretania which both held the Ã¢â¬ËBlue RibandÃ¢â¬â¢ for the fastest Atlantic crossing ships. The Titanic was built to look like her sister ship, Ã¢â¬Å"The OlympicÃ¢â¬ in so many different ways. They were both built to travel at moderate speeds, carry a lot of people, and to have a lot of space to carry cargo. The upper part of the titanic was also built to look like the Olympic only that, the TitanicÃ¢â¬â¢s was enlarged and refined. There were no risks taken in building the engines as the engines were enlarged versions of the propulsion system first used experimentally in Laurentic in 1909. There was also no risk taken in the design of the inside of the ship as it was built to look like that of older white ships only larger. The TitanicÃ¢â¬â¢s long thin rudder with its high counter stern was, in fact, a copy of an 18th century steel sail ing ship, a perfect example of the lack of technical development. This design compared with the modern rudder design of the Mauretania or Lusitania, Titanic's was a fraction of the size. Apparently no account was made for advances in scale and little thought given to how a ship 852 feet in length, might turn in an emergency or avoid a collision with an iceberg. This was Titanic's Achilles heel. It was also said that the Titanic wanted to set a record on her maiden trip by arriving the shores of New York ahead of schedule and that speed played an important role in the Titanic which is not actually true. She went through the route the Olympic followed the previous year and she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even have all her boilers on. She was sailing through the longer route in order to avoid the icebergs. An allegation was brought up that claimed that Bruce Ismay, chairman and managing director of
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
The musculoskeletal System - A Case Study - Short Answers - Essay Example The wounds can be open or closed. Open wounds are common because the shaft of the tibia is just below the skin and subcutaneous tissue and is not covered with much soft tissue. Most of the tibial shaft fractures are associated with fibular fractures too. In Julia, the fracture occurred due to high speed accident. The fibula was however not involved and the wound was closed. The main sources of pain in Julia are the site of fracture, skin and subcutaneous tissue and the muscles surrounding the tibia. Fracture induces significant amount of inflammation and release of inflammatory mediators with cause pain, swelling, warmth and redness. During fracture, hematoma may be formed which can also cause pain (Rosenberg, 2007). Inflammatory cells, phagocytes and fibroblasts have a major role in the healing process of the fracture. Fracture causes formation of hematoma and a blood clot gets formed between the broken fragments of the fracture. After the initial few days following fracture, blood vessels grow within the clot. These blood vessels allow accumulation of phagocytes to the area which help in the removal of dead tissue. The blood vessels also cause pouring in of fibroblasts which multiply in the walls of the blood vessels and produce collagen fibres. These fibres replace the blood clot. The fibroblasts also lay down bone matrix or calcium hydroxyapatite which helps in the transformation of collagen to bone (Rosenberg, 2007). Factors which promote wound healing in Julia are immobilization, good nutrition, young age and absence of infection (Rosenberg, 2007; Konowalchuk, 2005 and Norvell, 2009). Immobilization is very essential to promote fracture healing. This is because, any movement of the fragments of the fracture hinder the process of healing. Movement disturbs the formation of clot and invasion of blood vessels within the clot. Decrease in the formation of blood vessels prevents invasion of fibroblasts essential for deposition of collagen and bone